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7. In case where the similarity of a sound of a trademark is judged simply by the factors and methods judging sound which is inherent in a sound, for example, the followings such as item (I) and (II) shall be adopted.
(Ⅰ) 商標の称呼類否判断にあたっては、比較される両称呼の音質、音量及び音調並びに音節に関する判断要素(〔注1〕ないし〔注4〕)のそれぞれにおいて、共通し、近似するところがあるか否かを比較するとともに両商標が特定の観念のない造語であるか否か(例えば、明らかな観念の違いによってその音調を異にしたり、その称呼に対する注意力が異なることがある。)を考慮し、時と所を異にして、両商標が称呼され、聴覚されるときに聴者に与える称呼の全体的印象(音感)から、互いに相紛れるおそれがあるか否かによって判断するものとする。
(I) In judging the similarity of sounds of trademarks, at first, whether or not common or similar parts are found in each factor judging on the tone quality, volume, tune and syllables of both sounds to be compared (“Note 1” through “Note 4”), shall be compared. Furthermore, considering whether or not both trademarks are coined words which do not have specific concept (for example, sometimes, they differ in tune, and attention to be paid to sounds becomes different depending on clear difference of concept), it shall be judged depending on whether or not such trademarks are likely to cause confusion with each other, from the overall impression of the appellations (auditory feelings) that may be given to listeners when both trademarks are pronounced and heard to at the different time and in the different places.
If both of the trademarks fall under any of the following criteria [Note 5] mentioned in (1) to (8) of (II) [Note 6], such trademarks shall be deemed, in principle, to be similar in sounds [Note 7].
[Note 1] As judging factors related to the quality of the sound (nature of the tone that is produced from qualitative rules on vowels and consonants), the following factors shall be enumerated;
 (イ) 相違する音の母音を共通にしているか、母音が近似しているか
(a) whether vowels of the different sounds are common or similar; [ for example, in the different sound, in case where (i) the sound is positioned in the middle or at the end of the word and its vowels are common, or (ii) its consonants are similar in the position and method of the articulation (meaning the case where consonants are in identical or similar intonation positions or in methods in the consonant chart, such that both are labials or frictional sounds. However, it may differ in accordance with the position, intonation or the total number of sounds), and their vowels are in common, etc., the general auditory feeling is often heard as similar.]
 (ロ) 相違する音の子音を共通にしているか、子音が近似しているか
【例えば、1音の相違にあって(i)相違する音の子音がともに50音図の同行に属しその母音が近似(例えば、口の開き方と舌の位置の比較から、母音エはアとイに近似し、母音オはアとウに近似する。ただし、相違する音の位置、音調、全体の音数の多少によって異なることがある。) するとき (ii)相違する音が濁音(ガ、ザ、ダ、バ行音)の半濁音(パ行音)、清音(カ、サ、タ、ハ行音)の違いにすぎないとき等においては、全体の音感が近似して聴覚されることが多い。】
(b) whether consonants of the different sounds are common or similar; [for example, there are differences in sound, where (i) the consonants of the different sounds are in the same line of the table of the Japanese syllabary, and their vowels are similar (for example, a vowel [e] is similar to [a] and [i], and a vowel [o] is similar to [a] and [u] according to how a mouth is opened and the position of a tongue. However, this may vary according to the position or intonation of the different sounds and the total numbers of sounds), or where (ii) such different sounds simply consist of the difference in a voiced consonant (sound of [ga], [za], [da] or [ba] lines) , voiceless bilabial plosive consonant (sound of [pa] line) or a voiceless sound (sound of [ka], [sa], [ta] or [ha] lines), etc., in such cases, the general auditory feeling is often heard as similar;

Post Author: tsubakipat